How high is high enough when venturing off-road? This is a very valid question, however, in order to answer that question, you need to determine what type of off-roading you plan on doing since its purely a case of horses for courses. Sand dunes vs graded mountain tracks will require vastly different configurations and the minimum ground clearance will differ substantially.
Minimum ground clearance for gravel tracks ranges between 6.6 inches and 8.7 inches. For over-landing, your ground clearance should range between 8.8in to 9.4in. A minimum height of 10.8 inches and above is required for tough graded 4×4 tracks and rock crawling.
Minimum Clearance Explained
Ground Clearance refers to the minimum ride height of the vehicle. It is one of the most basic but very important dimensions of a vehicle used for off-roading. Ground clearance is measured as the minimum distance between the lowest part of the vehicle and the road surface. Ride height is measured from the lowest hanging component of the vehicle i.e the subassembly or differential or chassis and the ground.
The ground clearance will determine to a large degree the type of terrain you can comfortably traverse without damaging the vehicle body, bumpers or undercarriage components.
If you are not planning on doing heavy off-road trails and all you want to do is explore on gravel roads, forest service roads, and mild jeep tracks? If you are not intending on doing any serious rock crawling, 4×4 trails or deep ruts, this is usually referred to as soft-roading. Well in this instance you can get away with a lot less clearance. However, there are other factors that will influence how deep into the mountain you can venture.
The approach angle refers to the steepest or maximum angle between your lowest part of your front bumper and the obstacle. A low approach angle will result in scraping and possible damage to the front bumper and undercarriage if you attempt an obstacle with a vehicle with a bad or low approach angle. A vehicle’s approach angle represents the steepest hill or obstacle it can climb without scraping or slamming its front bumper against the rock or slope.
The departure angle is the distance measured from the lowest part of the rear-end of the vehicle as you depart or exit the obstacle. If you have a low departure angle you risk getting hung up on the rear or even ripping off the rear plastic bumper. The departure angle represents the steepest gradient a vehicle can descend without scraping or bashing its rear bumper against the rock/slope.
The break-over angle is the angle measured between the front and rear wheels and the lowest part of the vehicle in the middle. Picture an invisible triangle looking from the side of the vehicle between the wheels and the chassis. The break-over angle is an indication of the steepest crest a vehicle can traverse without high-centering.
The most important vehicle requirement in my view for “soft-roading” is decent all-terrain tires. Soft-roading is not as demanding as many people think it is, but whenever you are off-road, you’d be better off to err on the side of caution if you do not have a mate to recover you.
Ground Clearance Needed For 4×4 Without Risking Damage
How you measure or determine ground clearance can be done in 2 ways. Measure from the chassis or measure from the diff housing. The distance between the chassis and the wheels will be reduced when you include the weight of additional fuel, passengers and other gear.
Ground clearance is only reduced from the diff or axle housing once you start deflating your tires.
Below is a list of popular off-road 4×4 vehicles and their factory standard ground clearance measurements. The improved ground clearance will allow you to clear rocks and other obstacles much easier. Ground clearance measurements and your vehicle’s capability can be increased in 3 ways.
- Taller Tires
- Suspension Lift
- Body Lift
The below table has been sorted from highest to lowest ground clearance.
|Jeep Gladiator 2020||11.1 inches (281mm)|
|Toyota Hilux 2019||10.9 in. (279mm)|
|Jeep Wrangler Rubicon 2019||10.8 inches (274mm)|
|Toyota Tacoma 2019||9.4 inches (238mm)|
|Land Cruiser 200 2019||9 inches (228mm)|
|Ford Ranger 2019||8.9 inches (226mm)|
|VW Amarok v6 2019||8.8 inches (226mm)|
|Jeep Trailhawk 4dr 4×4 2019||8.7 inches (220mm)|
|Dodge Ram 1500 2019||8.4 inches (213mm)|
|Land Rover Discovery Sport 2019||8.3 inches (210mm)|
|Jeep Grand Cherokee 2019||6.6 inches (167mm)|
How Much Ground Clearance Do I Need In Snow?
When driving in snow regularly you definitely want to be traveling in an SUV or UTE because of the added ground clearance.
Driving in snow requires good ground clearance and not speed like an expensive All Wheel Drive AWD sports car. It is irrelevant if all 4 wheels are turning but you cannot clear the snow.
So if you live in a part of the world where you get heavy snowfall you will need a vehicle with at least 8-10 inches of ground clearance. Most sedan vehicles generally have an average ground clearance between 4-6 inches whereas SUV’s average between 6-8 inches. Some luxury high-end SUV’s like the Land Rover Discovery even has height adjustable pneumatic suspension which increases the ground clearance by means of inflatable airbags for extreme driving conditions, like snow. So more clearance is almost always an advantage.
When traveling through snow your ground clearance is not the only factor to consider but the most important feature for winter driving is proper winter or snow tires. The tread design pattern and the rubber compound of these tires greatly improves the vehicle’s traction and handling on snow and assists the vehicles built-in safety features. For example, your Traction Control and ESP systems only work correctly if you have traction and proper grip on the tires.
Ground Clearance For Over-Landing
So when you overland you need to determine what you want to do and in which type of terrain you will be conquering. You want to ensure your minimum ground clearance is 8 inches up to a maximum of 10 inches. Your main concern should be the reliability of your vehicle and the safety of your passengers. Proper expedition AT tires with 3 ply sidewalls are also very important. Some vehicles allow you to go extreme with overland customization but always but aware of your vehicle’s center of gravity and that your vehicle does not become top-heavy with heavily loaded roof racks, rooftop tents, and other equipment and accessories. So if you want to maintain diff height then you’ll need arch clearance and taller tires. If you need approach and departure increases then go with a body lift. You need to exercise caution and always consult with a professional before you fork out your hard-earned cash.
Over-landing is all about exploring new territory, more than conquering large obstacles. The tracks and trails you will traverse might be rough or technically challenging, but they are just the means to an end, not the goal itself. The main purpose is to explore and experience new destinations around your country or the world. Over-landing could be done on a weekend trip consisting of 100 miles from home or a 10,000-mile cross-continent expedition. Your vehicle and equipment can be basic or extravagant, depending on how deep your pocket is or what your philosophy on over-landing is. When over-landing, the main goal is to experience History, wildlife, culture, scenery, test your self-sufficiency – these are the rewards of over-landing.
How Much Difference Does Ground Clearance Make Off-Road
If you decide to venture into the unknown and traverse some harsh terrain in search of some adrenaline-pumping 4×4 action then you really want to make sure you have the correct vehicle with enough ground clearance and plenty of space between the chassis of your vehicle and the terrain you are attempting to travel over.
If your vehicle is lacking in this department you better have a fat wallet because you stand to do some serious under-body damage when climbing over rocks, boulders, and other large obstacles. You will often get caught up on the underside of your vehicle and find yourself high centering when your vehicle gets caught on these obstacles. You risk damaging body panels, brake lines, and your oil sump to name just a few expensive ticket items.
With this being said, it all depends on what kind of off-roading you are planning and the more extreme you go the higher the ground clearance you’ll need on your vehicle.
Technical off-road terrain can be enjoyed throughout any outdoor journey, and you as the explorer might be in search of a challenging route or track to test your skills and the capabilities of your vehicle as part of your experience, but overland travel is not the same as “weekend warrior” and recreational “four-wheeling”. There the main goal is to overcome the most challenging obstacles available.