Four-wheel drives are pretty robust trucks, however, from time to time we experience a few “niggly” issues that need our immediate attention. For example, when your four-wheel drive refuses to engage, what is the cause of this and how can it be repaired.
Why won’t your four-wheel-drive engage? Investigate if the 4WD actuator is functioning properly. Modern 4WD makes use of electronic switches and a solenoid that needs to be inspected if the 4×4 light is blinking on the dash but your 4WD system is not engaging. Inspect all related wires for corrosion. Engage your 4WD system at least once a month to keep the system well lubricated.
The next part of this article will explain what an actuator is, why we need to keep our 4WD system well lubricated and how to troubleshoot the transfer case module when our 4WD refuses to engage. If you would like to read more about your 4WD system and how it engages, continue reading.
The actuator of a 4-wheel-drive is designed to lock the differential once the driver engages 4WD by means of a switch from inside the cabin. The 4WD axle actuator is housed on the differential and contains the gears and shift fork required to lock the differential once it receives the signal. Once engaged the axle will rotate as one complete unit, drastically improving off-road traction.
Many modern 4WD actuators are electronic that make use of an electronic solenoid to engage the actuator gears to lock the diff. Older model 4-wheel drive actuators made use of vacuum hoses that use pressurized air and works together with the transfer case to activate the gears and lock the differential.
When the driver activates differential locker by means of a switch, it triggers a process that connects drive-shafts to function as one locked unit. The actuator uses a shift fork that slides a locking collar over two separate gears. This essentially engages 4WD mode. Most modern 4WDs with 4A complete this process automatically.
All the moving components inside the actuator like the shift fork, locking collar, and gears need to be regularly inspected and lubricated to protect them from moisture setting in, causing internal damage.
The 4-Wheel Drive Light is Blinking
What does it mean when you engage 4WD and notice a flashing red 4×4 light on the dash? This is not something you want to see on an off-road trail, so it’s important to regularly engage your 4WD system to make sure everything is still functioning as it should.
Many mechanics will advise you to do this exercise as often as possible to ensure all components inside the transfer case get lubricated and actuators get activated from time to time. Not all 4WD systems function the same although the basic concept might be similar and if you read the owner’s manual you’ll notice them always recommend that you activate the 4WD system regularly.
The flashing light on the dash indicates the 4WD system has not engaged properly and that you have a technical fault somewhere. This could be in the form of any of the following:
- An electrical fault such as a corroded wire or faulty 4WD dial/switch,
- A component failure such as a faulty transfer case module or actuator
- A seized differential caused by poor lubrication.
- A leak in the vacuum hoses (older traditional 4WD systems)
- A faulty solenoid (Modern electrical 4WD system)
A quick troubleshooting exercise with some basic tools can easily determine what the cause is, or at least narrow it down by the process of elimination
If you live in a part of the world that experiences very severe winters with snow and ice then you need to make sure your differential and transfer case oil levels are always topped up. These fluids are responsible for cooling and lubricating the diff gears. Just like any other oil, diff oil also breaks down over time and this contamination process can be accelerated if the diff has been contaminated with water. Always ensure you use a good grade of synthetic oil to prevent the diff from freezing up in sub-zero temperatures.
In extremely cold weather conditions, remember to first warm the vehicle up before you engage any 4WD systems.
If you drive off-road regularly or place a lot of load on your vehicle by towing a boat, caravan or off-road trailer, the differential fluid breaks down faster.
The below 3 reasons are mainly why diff oil breaks down faster
- You regularly drive on rough, wet off-road tracks
- You launch a boat regularly and the axle might be partially submerged in water
- You place a lot of load on the drivetrain by regularly driving in deep snow, thick sand or boggy mud.
Differential problems always manifest themselves in two ways, whining noises and grinding sounds. These faults are not easily detected unless it’s regularly inspected.
The weird noises are due to the oil breaking down to a point where it no longer lubricates the gears resulting in metal chaffing occurring inside the diff. This occurs when fine pieces of metal are sheared off from high-friction components and gears caused by intense heat from lack of lubrication. Failure to attend to this problem will result in component failures and expensive repair costs later down the line. Also, hearing grinding sounds when cornering is a dead give-away you are driving a 4WD with a dry unlubricated diff. Always inspect for oil leaks before and after every off-road trip.
If you have a wire corrosion problem, it can cause voltage and current flow degradation, meaning dips and irregularities in the signal transferred through the wire, which a sensor could interpret as a fault.
If this is the case with one of your switch wires or electrical solenoid connections, the 4WD actuator will not function correctly, resulting in the flashing light on the dashboard.
Hence the importance of proper maintenance of your 4-wheel-drive. This is especially applicable if you regularly drive off-road where tracks are wet and muddy or you wade through rivers or often drive on snow.
When testing electrical wires on a 4WD or any vehicle for that matter, never test wire with a piercing probe. When you prick tiny holes through the insulation of wires, you allow moisture to quickly set in, resulting in an increased risk of wire corrosion.
When you service the 4WD make sure all electrical connections are properly cleaned and sprayed with a good quality electrical silicon spray to prevent moisture build-up.
Your 4-wheel-drive has hundreds of electrical connections sending various signals from sensors. With modern 4WD, everything is electronically controlled and each system is responsible for an important duty, like the diff-lock switches and actuators. On 4WD vehicles, most of the electrical connections are well insulated, however, there is always a risk of wire corrosion.
This will affect the functionality of your 4WD system if left unchecked and could drop you when you least expect it.
When you have a faulty switch, you might be required to press the knob a few times before the dash 4×4 light stops flashing. The other problem could be, once 4H is engaged, you cannot disengage the 4WD system easily again. When the switch becomes faulty it can cause all sorts of strange issues with the system.
If you suspect the switch is faulty, take the 4WD to a professional auto-electrician to test and inspect if the switch needs replacement.
If you want to attempt the DIY approach, remove the 4WD switch from the dash and inspect for irregularities or failure. This could be a small problem and it’s always best to start your troubleshooting inspections from the smallest, cheapest component first to the most expensive item last.
As stated from the outset, it’s a valuable exercise to engage your 4WD system from time to time. This will not necessarily prevent your 4WD components from packing up but will alert you beforehand if there is a problem. In terms of lubrication, this is an excellent exercise to keep all 4×4 drivetrain components well “lubed” up and protected from moisture build-up inside differentials. Also, take the time to inspect all electrical cables to vital 4WD components and use a good silicone spray to prevent corrosion from setting in.
When troubleshooting, begin inspections with the smallest items first like dashboard switches to wires and connections, lubrication levels, and finally electronic components and the diff actuator switch.